You might remember linear regression from statistics as a method to produce a linear equation that models the relationship between two variables. Not surprisingly, linear regression is quite similar in machine learning, except that the focus is on the prediction rather than the interpretation of data. Regression is a supervised learning algorithm (if you remember from my previous blog) that predicts real-valued output when given an input. In this blog post, I will discuss the model representation of simple linear regression and introduce its cost function.
As we discussed in the previous post, machine learning is one of the main branches of artificial intelligence, in which we aim to build a rational agent. Machine learning is essential to implementation of artificial intelligence, for it allows agents to adapt to different scenarios, as well as predict changes in evolving environment around them. Continue reading
Through the last summer and over the course of the past few weeks, music has become an increasingly huge part of my life. It started for fun and has developed slowly (but not that slowly) into absolute devotion. In this time, I’ve made 8 songs. And as each one passes, I see myself growing tremendously. Just two weeks ago, I decided to bet on myself, I invested in my own work, and, with my mother’s assistance, upgraded my music equipment to a more professional level. Continue reading
I titled my first blog here for this semester’s independent research on the commercial aviation industry “the stories behind the metal birds.” The past few months were a blink. Now, at the end of May, I am sitting in front of my laptop composing my last blog entry. But before I revisit the “stories” I have looked over the course of my work, I want to first share a story about how I personally came to be fascinated by the airline industry.
Afternoon view of the Hollywood Hills (picture taken by myself in January 2017)
Part II: Implications
As a continuation of my previous discussions about United Express Flight 3411, Part II includes a closer examination of the incident from perspectives of both United Airlines and today’s commercial aviation industry.
The end of Part I seems to suggest an easily-reached conclusion: since clauses regarding overbooking are specified in the contract of carriage, airlines could as easily deny a passenger to board if they see a greater economic interest in selling more tickets or accommodating other last-minute top-tier frequent flyers or VIPs. As long as airlines see a smaller marginal cost to denying a “regular passenger” onboard, they are free to do so within the legal frame. And in the case of United Express Flight 3411, the “VIPs” were four “deadhead crew” who needed to fly from their base in Chicago to Louisville to serve another flight. Again, what the crew on that flight did was perfectly legal: after 9/11, for security reasons, on U.S. commercial aircrafts, crew members are given the absolute authority and failure to comply with any of their instructions could result in the intervention of law enforcement. But this time, with the rapid spread of this incident’s footage on the Internet, the marginal cost of denying David Dao skyrocketed.
Lufthansa 747-8 at Frankfurt Airport (picture taken by myself in March 2017)
Part I: From Event Recap to the Common Practice of Overbooking
Monday, Apr.10, in the afternoon. I was waiting in line at Washington Dulles Airport, ready to board a United Express flight back to Philadelphia. The TV screen near the boarding gate was showing some CNN sports news, which I often pay the least attention to. Suddenly, I noticed a few people raising their heads almost unanimously from their private tiny screens, casting anxiously surprised looks onto that CNN channel. A video of a wounded passenger being dragged off a plane was shown on the screen, with that male passenger screaming. The caption was: United forcibly dragged a passenger off an plane in Chicago. The gate agent stood in front of me, not at all unnerved by the small commotion, and spoke into her microphone with professional smile: welcome to United Express flight 6138 with service to Philadelphia. We are now pre-boarding customers with disabilities, uniformed military personnel, family traveling with children under 2, and our Global Services members.
United aircrafts in Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) (picture taken by myself in November 2016)
Starting from the end of last month, when passengers travel from many Muslim-majority countries in the Middle East into the United States, they are no longer allowed to bring electronics larger than smartphone onboard as part of their carry-on luggage. Shortly after the U.S. announced this electronics restriction, the U.K. followed similarly. The three huge air carriers in the Middle East, Emirates, Qatar, and Etihad, are most affected by this newly enacted and executed security ban. These three carriers soon announced policy changes, such as allowing laptops to be checked-in at the gate, to minimize the negative effect this ban has on their customers. Yet despite their attempts, when you board Emirates’ signature A380 double-decker to fly from Dubai to New York next time, you will not be able to work on your laptop nor could you entertain yourself from an iPad. U.S. authorities have claimed that this ban is based on latest intelligence reports, which have indicated a possibility of terrorists inserting small bombs within electronic devices. This claim is understandable: after all, the lack of an effective and thorough security screening system creates room for many terrorist attacks. However, to what extent government authorities can exert their control in the name of safety is always debatable. Why is the electronics ban only on certain countries with a Muslim majority, with no U.S. carriers affected? How about the potential security threat in the checked baggage, which is often less scrutinized? In fact, arguments about how increasingly stricter airport security measures result in the violation of personal rights is never new.
Cathay Pacific A350 at Hong Kong International Airport (HKG) (picture taken by myself)
We live in a digital age that relies on social media for business and social outreach. The internet has allowed for a regular conglomeration of millions of people per day on the same platform connecting and engaging with friends, advertisements, businesses, and public figures alike. For anyone creating a nonprofit, business, or awareness campaign, Facebook is a key tool that should be utilized to the fullest. Here are my top tips and tricks for using Facebook’s various features to the fullest. These tips will allow you to increase engagement and reach more people. Continue reading
It’s been a long time since my last post…Good to be back here to talk about commercial aviation. I have previously mentioned, in my first blog, that different airlines can be seen as distinct agents that represent the cultures of their home countries. I made this point totally out of my observations. When I boarded my first few flights almost a decade ago, I started to notice different seat decorations of different carriers. It was not until later years that I figured out some meaning out of these ostensible differences. For example, hidden behind the cloud-shaped figures imprinted on seats of Air China is the oriental philosophy that promises happiness and tranquility; ANA’s signature boarding music Another Sky brings a taste of traditional Japanese music, ongaku, to its passengers. Yet as I think about the subject deeper, I have found out that the footprint of an airline’s culture extends far beyond explicit manifestations of national symbols. As you will see in the three case studies below, both the indigenous, regional culture and the internal corporate atmosphere have huge impacts on almost every dimension of an airline’s operation and the product it delivers. The cumulation of every little cultural detail, in turn, shapes the identity of airlines and helps them differentiate from their competitors.
ANA Onboard Japanese Meal Selection from Tokyo Narita to Shanghai (Picture taken by myself) Continue reading
Hello everyone. It is definitely an exciting time for me to start doing my second semester research on the past events and current developments of commercial aviation. I am a huge fan of commercial aviation since I was little, and I regularly read and write travel blogs and aviation forums to get to know the latest trends or development in this field and to share my thoughts.
Air Canada Boeing 777-300ER with service from Shanghai to Toronto (picture taken by myself)