Author Archives: mikehyojan

Final Blog – Mikehyojan

For my last blog, I would like to share the paintings I have done so far. First is a pair of paintings of a bookshelf with a flower in a vase located next to it. Inside the bookshelf, I drew Korean traditional elements including a brush and a roll of paper. As you can see, I need some final work in painting the Westtown lamp and Westtown clock and I am going to add some decorations inside the circles of the bookshelf in ‘W’ shapes to symbolize Westtown. As I mentioned in the first blog, I intended to harmonize western elements influenced by Westtown and eastern elements from my background in Korea. Furthermore, the two paintings are both traditional and modern by keeping Korean flowers, bookshelves, and brushes while inserting the modern clock, lamp, and bench. Continue reading

Reflection – Mikehyojan

Before Thanksgiving break, I would like to reflect on what I have done so for during the two months since September. It was a unique experience for me to search for scarce resources related to Korean traditional folk painting in the U.S. university libraries with Teacher Betsy. Also, for the first time in long period, I drew outlines, mixed colors, and painted without my Minhwa teacher or advisor standing next to me, helping and editing. I really enjoyed reading my classmates’ weekly posts and commenting on their articles. Although writing the blog was challenging to me at first as you can see from this first blog, as I was used to writing more formally, I became confident in writing blogs with a friendly tone. I am grateful to have had the opportunity to share what I am interested in and passionate about. I feel I have learned more about the culture from the country I came from through this experience. I feel most satisfied when people, impressed with my blogs, commented on them. Continue reading

Painting for Longevity ‘Shipchangsaengdo’ – Mikehyojan

Today, I am going to introduce another genre of Korean folk painting which is called Shipchangsaengdo. For early Koreans, the goal and desire of life was pretty simple: fortune, honor, wealth, longevity, and fertility to have plenty of descendants. Koreans portrayed their hopes for such a life in Korean folk paintings. Among them, Shipchangsaengdo portrays common people’s wish to live long. Continue reading

Humor and Satire – Mikehyojan

In my previous blog, I mentioned that the book “Handbook of Korean Art” indicates in Korean folk paintings, humor and satire are prominent elements. I explained how they are composed in Hojakdo. But the book does not tell why and how humor and satire in Korean folk painting evolved. It seems this is because the book is just a handbook, introducing Korean folk paintings to Americans briefly and focusing more on displaying various folk paintings.

I even looked on the Internet but I did not find the way and reason satire evolved in Korean folk paintings. I probably didn’t find much because I searched in English, not Korean, and there don’t seem to be many resources in English. Even on Korean sites, though, there was no clear explanation. At this point, I felt more historical research on Korean folk paintings is needed. Part of the problem is that since Korean folk paintings’ artists and dates are not known, they have not been viewed as historical records in Korea.

Based on my research and knowledge of Korean history, I realized that satire in the paintings reflected the Korean society during the 17th Century. At that time, Confucian philosophy shaped Korea by defining jobs and duties. The Confucian social hierarchy was rigid with the aristocracy or yangban serving as the government officials. Common people comprised the next level down, and were called yangmin; most were merchants, artisans, craftsmen, and farmers. The bottom class was the slave class, called chonmin. Yangmin and chonmin had to obey yangban.

Yangmin composed most of Korean society. Many of them suffered from some yangban’s oppression, ignorance, and corruption. Instead of expressing unlawful violence and anger toward the yangban, the common people chose to ridicule them through paintings. Interestingly, another interpretation of Hojakdo is that the magpie in the paintings represents the yangmin themselves while the tiger represents the ignorant yangban. Although the magpie may seem weak, it is intelligent and looks down on the funny-looking tiger which thinks it is fierce.

Such typical Korean satire and humor continues today. The music video Gangnam Style that went viral in 2012, and is the the third most viewed and liked video on YouTube, ridicules wealthy citizens from Gangnam, which is one of the 25 districts of South Korea’s capital, Seoul. While Gangnam represented only 3 percent of South Korea’s population in 2010, 40 percent of Seoul’s registered assets were concentrated in Gangnam. Therefore, the artist PSY satirizes ostentatious Gangnam residents going to parties through a hilarious dance. The Gangnam style video is similar to Korean folk paintings in that both mock the power and privilege in Korea.

Humor and satire prevailed in last year’s Korean presidential impeachment and election. During the protests on the street, which demanded impeachment, diverse events were held such as puppet plays and drawing caricatures that depicted the former president being controlled by her not elected friend.

After the Korean president was impeached, during the new presidential election exit polls of several broadcaststers, presidential candidates were hilariously portrayed as characters from Game of The Thrones, riding on a dragon, or creatures of Pokemon Go. Koreans were entertained watching the humorous exit polls, in the same way that Korean folk paintings entertained their ancestors unlike the traditional, dull, and ordinary exit polls which project an image of “high” status and education, like sophisticated ink paintings. The humor and satire appeased the anger that the Koreans had toward the former corrupt government and showed the strength of the citizens through portraying Korean president candidates hilariously instead of figures of respect and fear, as the yangbang and modern powerful figures saw themselves.


Yoon, Yeol-su, et al. Handbook of Korean Art. Yekyong Publishing, 2002.

“Park Geun-Hye and the Friendship behind S Korea’s Presidential Crisis.” BBC News, BBC, 31 Oct. 2016,

O’Connor, Roisin. “Gangnam Style Video by Psy Surpassed as ‘Most Watched’ YouTube Video by Wiz Khalifa and Charlie Puth.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 12 July 2017,

Mailonline, Charlotte Ikonen For. “Nuclear Winter Is Coming? Hilarious South Korean Election Coverage Portrays Candidates as Game Of Thrones Characters (so at Least Someone Isn’t Worried about Kim’s Nuke Tests).” Daily Mail Online, Associated Newspapers, 10 May 2017,

Miller, Tanya Jo. “Is ‘Gangnam Style’ a Satire About Korea’s 1%?” The Huffington Post,, 3 Sept. 2012,

Morando -Mikehyojan

        Thanks to the long weekend, I had plenty of time to read and paint Korean folk art, Minhwa.

        First, I skimmed through five books that Teacher Betsy and I borrowed in university libraries. Before starting this Minhwa Project, I was slightly concerned about writing blogs every week because I first thought there are not many resources about Korean folk painting in English. Even while searching for books with Teacher Betsy, I was not sure whether they would be related to my project. So, I ended up borrowing five books. But guess what? Although two books focused on Korean ink painting, three other books dealt with Korean folk painting. I was very excited as I did not expect to find three relevant and useful books. Before the books came, I hoped even a single book would be helpful. In the picture below of five books, I have intentionally placed two books upward to show you that they are Korean ink painting books while three books with the cover facing you are the ones that are related to my project.

        This weekend, I read the tiniest book in the picture named “Handbook of Korean Art” that was from Drexel University Library. It introduces sixteen different genres of Folk Paintings. Interestingly, it does not include Hojakdo that I researched and posted in the Week 2 blog, but it includes Morando.

         I knew the book would explain Morando since it is the most popular and widely drawn Korean folk painting. Morando is the painting of peonies. As you can see below paintings of Morando that I randomly took a picture from the book, the peony blossom is charming and splendid. So during the 17th century, it was regarded as a symbol of wealth and longevity.

         Another interesting fact about Morando is its relationship with numbers. Morando symbolizes the number zero. Zero is regarded as similar to infinity as zero makes every number “even” especially when it comes at the end. Therefore, zero is regarded as auspicious when it is related to longevity and money. That is why it symbolizes long life and wealth. Meanwhile, it is highly recommended not to draw butterflies in Morando. The butterfly symbolizes number 80 so putting butterflies in Morando limits the wealth and longevity to 80 years. You want to live more than 80 years with wealth right? But you can sometimes see some Morando with butterflies. I guess those artists try to add beauty but they might not know the interesting story and facts behind Morando.

         Painters can be creative in expressing peony flowers. Peony flowers can be variously colored: red, white, rose pink, cinnabar red, blue, purple, or yellow. The direction of peony flowers can differ as well. They can face forward, upward, downward or even twisted sideways because of the wind. Also, there can be grass or rocks painted underneath peony flowers.

         I am painting Morando as well for my arts independent project. I drew oddly-shaped rocks underneath peony flowers. To add uniqueness, I will paint the moss, covering the rock. I drew the vase where five peony flowers are placed. I decorated it with the letter ‘W’ to symbolize Westtown. The vase color will be blue as the Westtown emblem is covered with color blue. The painting below is just the outline of my Morando.

        My peony flowers are as big as a vase. According to the book, common people who drew Morando during the 17th Century intentionally used extreme simplicity and exaggeration for Morando. Such techniques are to captivate the eyes and minds of viewers, bringing them into new dimensions of artistic beauty.

        Thanks for reading my blog and see you next week.

Citation: Yoon, Yeol-su, et al. Handbook of Korean Art. Yekyong Publishing, 2002.

Hojakdo – Mikehyojan

I explored one of the most popular genres of Minhwa called Hojakdo this week. The word “ho” represents a tiger, “jak” indicates a magpie, and “do” means painting. Therefore, Hojakdo mainly features the tiger and magpie. In Korea, the number of tigers proliferated in the past. As tigers were threatening at that time, Korean ancestors intentionally drew them with humorous facial expressions as if they were funny and friendly cats to represent people’s will to overcome fear. Continue reading

Introducing Minwha – Mikehyojan

For my art independent seminar, I am going to research deeply and explain thoroughly the remarkable Korean folk art, Minwha. Minwha was created and developed around the 17th century by the common people. Historically, most painters were anonymous as they traveled around and painted by the demands of people at various festivals without leaving their name or initials. Continue reading